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中国株レポート
投資の視点
新興成長国基礎データ
中華人民共和国
パプアニューギニア
インドネシア
スリランカ
バングラディッシュ
インド
韓国
タイ
パキスタン
マレーシア
ベトナム
フィリピン
アルゼンチン
ブラジル
チリ
メキシコ
エクアドル
ベネズエラ
ペルー

ヨルダン
ポルトガル
ギリシャ
ポーランド
ハンガリー
ザンビア
トルコ
ナイジェリア
モーリシャス
ボツワナ

Geography

The Independent State of Papua New Guinea occupies the eastern half of New Guinea, together with about 600 neighbouring islands in the groups and archipelagos of the western Pacific. Its only land border is with West Irian, part of Indonesia. The total area of the State is about 462,840 sq. km. Papua New Guinea contains some of the world's most difficult terrain, rich soils, considerable mineral resources, and forestry and fishery reserves of good commercial potential.

Demography

The estimated population in 1992 was 3.9 million. Population growth was stable at around 2.7% between 1982 and 1989. Government projections assume that by the end of the century the total population will be 4.7 million indicating a 2.4% growth rate. Some 41% of the population is under 15 years of age.

The two local languages are Pidgin English and Hiri Motu, but in total there are 700-800 languages in the country. English is the language of government and commerce. There are many tribal groups, but the people are mainly Melanesian, except for a small number of Polynesians, who live mainly on the outlying atolls, and the non-indigenous population. Most of the latter, who number about 30,000, are of Australian and other European origin.

In 1982, at the latest census, primary school enrolment was 60% of the relevant age group. The comparable ratio for secondary enrolment was only 11%. Access to secondary education ranges from 7% in the Eastern Highlands to almost 50% in East New Britain.

In 1990 13% of the population was defined as "urbanised". Port Moresby is the largest urban centre with approximately 150,000 inhabitants in 1985. The labour force was estimated at 1,827,000 in the 1990 census, of whom 1,225,000 were in agriculture. The public sector is the largest formal employer, with plantations a close second.

History and Political Situation

Prior to gaining its independence on 16th September 1975, Papua New Guinea consisted of two territories jointly administered by Australia since 1948. One territory, Papua was an Australian possession annexed in 1906; the other, New Guinea was a United Nations Trust Territory. The country is a member of the Commonwealth, with Queen Elizabeth II as its Head of State and is represented by a governor general who is nominated by the Papua New Guinea Parliament or House of Assembly, to hold office for six years. Strong ties still exist with Australia, but increasingly Papua New Guinea is seeking to deepen commercial and aid relations with EC countries, Japan and ASEAN (of which it is seeking full membership). It is an active member of the South Pacific Forum and Lome Convention.

The National Parliament is based on the Westminster system; the prime minister and cabinet are chosen from the 109 members. In July 1992 Paias Wingti, leader of the People's Democratic Movement, was elected prime minister for the third time. The other major contender for the role of prime minister is the leader of the Pangu Pati and the country's elder statesman, Michael Somare, who had been prime minister from 1975 until 1980 and again from 1982 to 1985.

The Bougainville crisis has been PNG's most sensitive problem since 1988. Initially dissident landowners of the island of Bougainville in the North Solomon province, started protests wanting a greater share of the earnings of the giant Panguna copper mine, accounting for 20% of PNG's visible exports. Since the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) began demanding independence for the North Solomons, there has been continued conflict between the PNG defence army and the BRA.

PNG retains close links with Australia, which has been a major factor in maintaining economic stability. Before independence, the share of aid from Australia was close to 60% of total revenue. Grant aid is scheduled to end by 1994 and to be replaced by direct project aid bringing Australia into line with other sources of aid. Its reduction in recent years has forced the government to seek other income sources.

Economy

The country's principal resources are in the mineral sector: copper and gold on Bougainville island and the recently discovered deposits at Ok Tedi, which could make Papua New Guinea the world's third largest producer of gold after South Africa and Russia. New reserves were also identified at Porgera, on Lihir Island and on the banks of the Ramu river. There are significant reserves of oil in the Gulf of Papua and the Southern Highlands, and considerable untapped hydroelectricity potential. The government is looking to exploitation of mineral resources to develop the economy and reduce its dependence on budgetary aid from Australia. The mining sector is essentially an enclave with limited downstream linkages within the country. It is run by local subsidiaries of major international mining concerns. The government has substantial minority share holdings in some of the ventures, of which it is now proposing to give the provincial government and landowners a slice in response to spreading local dissatisfaction.

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, growing mainly roots and tubers, contributing 28% of GDP in 1990 and employing two-thirds of the working population. The principal cash crops are coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm oil, rubber and tea. Although the government is giving priority to investment, progress has been hampered by a shortage of trained manpower and support services and by a low prices for key commodities. However, the coming on stream of the $1 billion Kutubu oil project in mid 1992, whose production now runs at around 130,000 barrels per day, will serve to alleviate this problem somewhat.

Monetary and exchange rate policies have been aimed at maintaining economic stability and in this the government has been broadly successful. The currency and inflation have been steady in comparison with those of many other developing countries. In 1989 and 1990 GDP growth was a negative figure due to the closure of the mine in the Bougainville and the high cost of security operations there coincided with a period of low prices for Papua New Guinea's key agricultural commodities. The economy recovered strongly in 1991 with 9.5% GDP growth, and this strong recovery continues, largely due to rapid growth in the mineral sector and commercial exploitation of oil and gas. With the new development projects for minerals, PNG will continue rapid growth at least until 1993.

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