||| ||| ||| |||
中国株レポート
投資の視点
新興成長国基礎データ
中華人民共和国
パプアニューギニア
インドネシア
スリランカ
バングラディッシュ
インド
韓国
タイ
パキスタン
マレーシア
ベトナム
フィリピン
アルゼンチン
ブラジル
チリ
メキシコ
エクアドル
ベネズエラ
ペルー

ヨルダン
ポルトガル
ギリシャ
ポーランド
ハンガリー
ザンビア
トルコ
ナイジェリア
モーリシャス
ボツワナ

Geography

The Republic of Indonesia consists of almost 13,700 islands with a total land area of 1.9 million square kilometres, extending in an arc between Asia and Australia. Population and economic activity are concentrated in five main islands - Java (132,187 sq.km with 107.5 million inhabitants), Sumatra (474,000 sq.km , 36.4 million), Kalimantan (Borneo) (539,000 square kilometres, 9.1 million), Sulawesi (189,000 sq.km, 12.5 million) and Irian Jaya (the western part of the island of New Guinea) (422,000 sq.km, 1.6 million). These islands account for approximately 80% of the total territory.

Demography

The 1992 population was estimated at 186.4 million, making Indonesia the fourth most populous nation in the world, following the dissolution of the USSR. The annual rate of population growth between 1982 and 1989 was 1.8%. By 2000 it is officially estimated that the population will reach 220 million. 26% of the population live in urban areas: the two principal cities are both on Java - Jakarta (about 8.2 million inhabitants) and Surabaya (about 2.5 million inhabitants).

UNESCO's survey in 1990 indicated that about 77% of the adult population are literate. Some 38% of the population is under the age of 15 years.

Approximately 250 separately identifiable languages and dialects are spoken. Bahasa Indonesia was made the official language of government, and the sole medium of instruction in Indonesian schools after independence, and is now understood by the vast majority of the Indonesian population.

The labour force in 1990 was estimated at 76.1 million, employed 55% in agriculture, 28% in commerce and services and 9% in manufacturing. The Indonesian government regards the provision of employment opportunities for its rapidly growing population as one of its prime economic policy objectives and is likely to give strong preference to development projects with a high potential for employment generation in the next few years.

History and Political Situation

Conquered by the Dutch East Indies Company in 1602, and administered by the Netherlands from 1778 until World War Two when it was occupied by the Japanese, Indonesia gained its independence in 1949. West New Guinea (Irian Jaya) was handed over by the Dutch to Indonesia in 1963 and in 1975-76 Indonesia invaded and annexed the former Portuguese colony of East Timor.

General Suhartoo became President in 1965, and has since been re-elected for five successive terms, the most recent commencing in 1988. Suhartoo began by reorganising the political parties, banning the Communist party, and the government re-established links with the West, opening up the country to foreign investment.

The government party is Golkar, a nationalist organisation created and dominated by members of the armed forces. In the 1992 legislative elections, Golkar obtained 68% of the popular vote. At present the other two political parties in Parliament are the Islamic United Development Party (PPP Partai Persatuan Pembangunan) and the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI, Partai Demokrasi Indonesia), combining the former nationalist and Christian parties.

Beyond the political parties and Golkar, the most important forces in Indonesia are the military, the Muslim community and a growing class of well-connected businessmen. The military has always been regarded as playing an important role in maintaining Indonesia's political stability. The Muslim community is an important force simply by virtue of its size, with some 85% of Indonesia's population adhering at least nominally to Islam. While maintaining its commitment to a secular state structure the government has responded forcefully to challenges from the relatively small minority of Muslim extremists. The government has therefore been careful to maintain good relations with organisations representing the vast majority of politically moderate Muslims.

Despite occasional outbreaks of racial tension directed at the Chinese minority, Indonesia has enjoyed a remarkable degree of political stability since 1968, as the "New Order" established by President Suharto is consolidated. After more than 20 years in office, however, President Suharto's government now faces the task of ensuring a smooth political succession, and a controlled and gradual handover of authority to the younger generation is already in progress in the armed forces and some levels of government.

Economy

The era of President Sukarno prior to 1965 was characterised by dirigiste policies and government spending on grandiose industrial and prestige projects. The "New Order" government of President Suharto brought, by contrast, a period of relative economic liberalisation when private enterprise was encouraged and foreign joint ventures became acceptable ( the roots of the earlier attitude of self-reliance can be found in the struggle for independence from the Dutch after World War Two). This liberalisation was brought to a standstill by race riots in 1974, which ushered in a period of much greater government intervention in the economy, with major parts of it coming under the effective control of the government or armed forces. The entrepreneurial Chinese at this time took Indonesian or military partners, and or adopted Indonesian names.

During the 1980s there has followed a gradual opening and deregulation of the economy, led by a small group of policy-makers known as the "Berkeley Mafia" who had studied together at the Californian university. This was encouraged by the collapse of the oil price in the mid 1980s. In 1982 oil and gas accounted for 82% of exports and manufactured goods only 4% but by 1988 these figures had become 40% and 30% respectively. The huge population of Indonesia, much of it concentrated on the comparatively small island of Java, with the attendant underemployment, made the country a natural base for production. The richness of Indonesia's natural resources, especially oil and gas, timber, coal, minerals, rubber, palm oil and tropical agriculture has been an added incentive. .

In recent years, a rapidly growing stream of investment has come in to Indonesia, mainly from Japan, but also from Taiwan, Korea, Hong Kong and even Thailand and Malaysia. This is probably one of the best current examples of the "trickle-down" process in operation, whereby manufacturers constantly seek the most cost-effective production base within a region. Approved foreign capital projects grew to more than US$ 8 billion in 1990 from $820 million in 1986. The continued flow in 1991 and 1992 suggests that the rates of economic growth forecast in the current five-year plan (5-6% per annum) are likely to be underpinned.

As long as there is steady expansion of the economy, tension between races is not likely to become an issue. Creation and distribution of wealth, as in the Malaysian model, appears a reasonable expectation in the next few years. The currency, which is fully convertible, may be expected to depreciate slowly, to maintain competitiveness without disruption, at about 5% per annum.

The Jakarta Stock Exchange has changed significantly since 1988 following reforms enabling the market to become freer in its operation. Prior to that time it was an almost dormant exchange. Market capitalisation grew by 10 times between 1988 and 1990 with the number of listings growing from 24 in 1988 to 125 in 1990. The market growth has slowed from a speculative peak in 1990 but the process of improving regulation and administration is continuing. The Jakarta Stock Exchange was privatised in early 1992, while requirements for disclosure, brokerage capital and liquidity have recently been tightened by the authorities in an effort to increase the market's credibility.

このサイトで使用されているすべての写真・文章・画像の無断転載使用を禁じます。
Copyright(2002-2014) かんたん株式会社
このホームページは、投資の知識を身に付けていただくために作られています。かんたん鰍ヘ、投資塾や個別コンサルテイングのみ行っており、金融商品の販売は行なっておりません。投資等のご判断は、自己責任にてするものです。このサイトのご利用により損害が生じても、当社は、その責を負いません